LLVM命令行选项的处理

There are two libraries for processing command line options in LLVM.

llvm/Support/ComandLine.h

See https://llvm.org/docs/CommandLine.html for documentation.

Global variables (mostly llvm::cl::opt<type>, some llvm::cl::list<type>) are most common to represent command-line options. The llvm::cl::opt constructor registers this command line option in a global registry. The program calls llvm::cl::ParseCommandLineOptions(argc, argv, ...) in main to parse the command line options. opt supports various integer types, bool, std::string, etc. Defining some specialization can support support custom class/enum types.

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static cl::OptionCategory cat("split-file Options");

static cl::opt<std::string> input(cl::Positional, cl::desc("filename"),
cl::cat(cat));

static cl::opt<std::string> output(cl::Positional, cl::desc("directory"),
cl::value_desc("directory"), cl::cat(cat));

static cl::opt<bool> noLeadingLines("no-leading-lines",
cl::desc("Don't preserve line numbers"),
cl::cat(cat));

int main(int argc, const char **argv) {
cl::ParseCommandLineOptions(argc, argv, ...);
}

Beside functionality options, there are many internal command line options in LLVM.

  • Having an option to select different code paths. Usually introduced when one feature is under development and is considered experimental.
  • The functionality has been stable for a period of time, and the default value has been changed to true. In some cases, users who find a regression can set the option to false as a workaround.
  • Provide more input to a pass for testing.

The llvm::cl library is easy to use. Adding a new option only requires adding a variable to a source file. The library provides some icing on the cake, e.g. recommending options with similar spellings in case of an incorrect spelling. But the customizability is poor. For example:

  • A llvm::cl::opt<bool> option accepts various input methods such as -v 0 -v=0 -v false -v=false -v=False
  • It is inconvenient to support both --long and --no-long at the same time. Occasionally, the workaround is to set a variable for --no-long. If you want to deal with two options override each other, you must determine the relative position of the two options in the command line

User-oriented external tools often have such customization requirements. The style of GNU getopt_long is --long. -long and --long can be mixed in llvm/Support/ComandLine.h, and mandatory -- is not supported for a long time.

LLVM binary utilities (llvm-nm, llvm-objdump, llvm-readelf, etc.) in order to replace GNU binutils, Need to provide grouped short options in the style of POSIX shell utilities (-ab means -a -b). This feature is not supported for a long time, which troubles users who want to migrate to LLVM binary utilities.

In addition, llvm::cl::opt is a singleton, and local variables can also be defined to dynamically increase options, but this usage is rare (llvm-readobj and llvm-cov). There is also a very peculiar usage. The legacy pass manager in the opt tool automatically obtains the pass name list and registers a large number of global options.

To prevent errors, llvm::cl::opt does not support defining the same option multiple times. If you link both shared object and archive LLVM libraries at the same time, a classic error will be triggered:

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: CommandLine Error: Option'help-list' registered more than once!
LLVM ERROR: inconsistency in registered CommandLine options

If you want to set the value of the llvm::cl::opt variable in Clang, you can use -mllvm -option=value. Use ld.lld/LLVMgold.so Full/Thin LTO to set these option values, use -plugin-opt=-option=value (ld.lld can also use -mllvm).

llvm/Option/OptTable.h

This was originally developed for Clang. It was later moved to llvm and adopted by many components such as llvm-objcopy, lld, and most binutils counterparts (llvm-symbolizer, llvm-objdump, etc). OptTable uses a domain-specific language (TableGen) to describe command line options and generate a parser. The parsed options are organized into an object, and each option is represented by an integer. It is easy to check whether a pair of boolean options with variable default values (--demangle --no-demangle) are in effect: Args.hasFlag(OPT_demangle, OPT_no_demangle, !IsAddr2Line).

Here is an example TableGen file:

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multiclass B<string name, string help1, string help2> {
def NAME: Flag<["--", "-"], name>, HelpText<help1>;
def no_ # NAME: Flag<["--", "-"], "no-" # name>, HelpText<help2>;
}

multiclass Eq<string name, string help> {
def NAME #_EQ: Joined<["--", "-"], name #"=">,
HelpText<help>;
def: Separate<["--", "-"], name>, Alias<!cast<Joined>(NAME #_EQ)>;
}

defm debug_file_directory: Eq<"debug-file-directory", "Path to directory where to look for debug files">, MetaVarName<"<dir>">;
defm default_arch: Eq<"default-arch", "Default architecture (for multi-arch objects)">;
defm demangle: B<"demangle", "Demangle function names", "Don't demangle function names">;
def functions: F<"functions", "Print function name for a given address">;

In the C++ source file, one writes:

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opt::InputArgList Args = parseOptions(argc, argv, IsAddr2Line, Saver, Tbl);

LLVMSymbolizer::Options Opts;
...
Opts.DebugFileDirectory = Args.getAllArgValues(OPT_debug_file_directory_EQ);
Opts.DefaultArch = Args.getLastArgValue(OPT_default_arch_EQ).str();
Opts.Demangle = Args.hasFlag(OPT_demangle, OPT_no_demangle, !IsAddr2Line);
Opts.DWPName = Args.getLastArgValue(OPT_dwp_EQ).str();

Note that GCC's command line options do not support grouped short options, so Clang does not require it. Some binutils counterparts need the support, and I added grouped short options (D83639) in July 2020.

Anecdote: LLD uses this library to parse command-line options. GNU ld actually supports grouped short options, for example, ld.bfd -vvv means -v -v -v. I suggested that GNU ld actually supports many -long style options, and supporting grouped short options can cause confusion.

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% touch an ommand':)'
% ld.bfd -you -can -ofcourse -use -this -Long -command -Line':)'
:)

binutils 2.36 is expected to deprecate grouped short options :)

To expand, many users of getopt_long use a switch and a large number of cases to process command line options, and it is easy to create various position dependent behaviors. For large build systems, sometimes it is not clear where the compiler/linker options are added, and some position dependent behaviors are quite annoying.

中文版

题外话:不知不觉,达成了llvm-project 1900 commits的成就。

LLVM中命令行选项的处理有两个库。

llvm/Support/ComandLine.h

文档参见https://llvm.org/docs/CommandLine.html

简单来说,用全局变量(llvm::cl::opt<type> var最常见,也有llvm::cl::list等)表示命令行选项。opt的构造函数会在一个全局的registry中注册这个命令行选项。 在main中调用llvm::cl::ParseCommandLineOptions(argc, argv, ...)解析命令行。 opt支持很多类型,如各种integer types、bool、std::string等,还支持自定义enum类型。

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static cl::OptionCategory cat("split-file Options");

static cl::opt<std::string> input(cl::Positional, cl::desc("filename"),
cl::cat(cat));

static cl::opt<std::string> output(cl::Positional, cl::desc("directory"),
cl::value_desc("directory"), cl::cat(cat));

static cl::opt<bool> noLeadingLines("no-leading-lines",
cl::desc("Don't preserve line numbers"),
cl::cat(cat));

int main(int argc, const char **argv) {
cl::ParseCommandLineOptions(argc, argv, ...);
}

LLVM中有很多开发者使用的命令行选项,除了功能选项外,还有:

  • 对某一pass有较大改动,in-tree开发时为了防止衰退,设置一个预设为false的enable变量
  • 一段时间功能稳定,把预设值改为true。在某些场合下发现衰退的用户可以使用false作为workaround
  • 给一个pass提供更多输入,用于测试

这个库使用便捷,添加一个新选项只需要在一个局部文件中加一个变量。还提供了一些锦上添花的小功能,如推荐拼写接近的选项。 但命令行解析的定制性很弱。比如:

  • 一个cl::opt<bool>选项接受-v 0 -v=0 -v false -v=false -v=False等多种输入方式
  • 不便同时支持--long--no-long。偶尔有需求时的workaround是给--no-long也设置一个变量。假如要处理两个选项互相override,就要判断两个选项在命令行中的相对位置

面向用户的外部工具往往有这类定制需求。GNU getopt_long的风格是--longllvm/Support/ComandLine.h-long--long可以混用,很长一段时间不支持强制--

LLVM binary utilities (llvm-nm、llvm-objdump、llvm-readelf等)为了替代GNU binutils, 需要提供POSIX shell utilities风格的grouped short options (-ab表示-a -b)。 很长一段时间这个功能不被支持,困扰了想要迁移到LLVM binary utilities的用户。

另外cl::opt是singleton,也可以定义局部变量动态增加选项,但这种用法很少见(llvm-readobj和llvm-cov)。 还有个很奇特的用法,opt工具中legacy pass manager自动获取pass name列表,并注册大量全局选项。

为了防止错误,cl::opt不支持多次定义同一个选项。如果同时链接了shared object和archive两种LLVM库,就会触发经典错误:

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: CommandLine Error: Option 'help-list' registered more than once!
LLVM ERROR: inconsistency in registered CommandLine options

在Clang里如果要设置cl::opt变量的值,可以用-mllvm -option=value。使用ld.lld/LLVMgold.so Full/Thin LTO也可以设置这些选项值,用-plugin-opt=-option=value(ld.lld也可用-mllvm)。

llvm/Option/OptTable.h

原先给Clang开发,后来移入llvm,被llvm-objcopy、lld、llvm-symbolizer等采用。 用一个domain-specific language (TableGen)描述选项,生成一个parser。解析过的选项组织成一个object,每个选项用一个integer表示。 检查一对预设值不定的boolean选项(--demangle --no-demangle)是否生效很容易:Args.hasFlag(OPT_demangle, OPT_no_demangle, !IsAddr2Line)

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multiclass B<string name, string help1, string help2> {
def NAME: Flag<["--", "-"], name>, HelpText<help1>;
def no_ # NAME: Flag<["--", "-"], "no-" # name>, HelpText<help2>;
}

multiclass Eq<string name, string help> {
def NAME #_EQ : Joined<["--", "-"], name #"=">,
HelpText<help>;
def : Separate<["--", "-"], name>, Alias<!cast<Joined>(NAME #_EQ)>;
}

defm debug_file_directory : Eq<"debug-file-directory", "Path to directory where to look for debug files">, MetaVarName<"<dir>">;
defm default_arch : Eq<"default-arch", "Default architecture (for multi-arch objects)">;
defm demangle : B<"demangle", "Demangle function names", "Don't demangle function names">;
def functions : F<"functions", "Print function name for a given address">;
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opt::InputArgList Args = parseOptions(argc, argv, IsAddr2Line, Saver, Tbl);

LLVMSymbolizer::Options Opts;
...
Opts.DebugFileDirectory = Args.getAllArgValues(OPT_debug_file_directory_EQ);
Opts.DefaultArch = Args.getLastArgValue(OPT_default_arch_EQ).str();
Opts.Demangle = Args.hasFlag(OPT_demangle, OPT_no_demangle, !IsAddr2Line);
Opts.DWPName = Args.getLastArgValue(OPT_dwp_EQ).str();

注意GCC的命令行选项不支持grouped short options,因此Clang也没有需求。很长一段时间因为缺少这个功能限制了它的使用场景。我在2020年7月加入了grouped short options (D83639)。

轶闻:LLD采用这个库解析命令行选项。GNU ld实际上支持grouped short options,比如ld.bfd -vvv表示-v -v -v。我提出GNU ld实际上支持很多-long风格的选项,再支持grouped short options容易引起混乱。

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% touch an ommand ':)'
% ld.bfd -you -can -ofcourse -use -this -Long -command -Line ':)'
:)

binutils 2.36有望deprecate grouped short options:)

再拓展一下,很多getopt_long用户用一个switch加大量case处理命令行选项,很容易弄出各种各样position dependent行为。 对于大型build system,有时候搞不清楚compiler/linker options是在什么地方添加的,有些position dependent行为挺讨厌的。